Saturday, April 4, 2009

IMAM TIRMIZI MENJELASKAN IKTIQAD AHLI SUNNAH WAL JAMAAH

غَيْرُ وَاحِدٍ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ فِي هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ وَمَا يُشْبِهُ هَذَا مِنْ الرِّوَايَاتِ مِنْ الصِّفَاتِ وَنُزُولِ الرَّبِّ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى كُلَّ لَيْلَةٍ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا قَالُوا قَدْ تَثْبُتُ الرِّوَايَاتُ فِي هَذَا وَيُؤْمَنُ بِهَا وَلا يُتَوَهَّمُ وَلا يُقَالُ كَيْفَ هَكَذَا رُوِيَ عَنْ مَالِكٍ وَسُفْيَانَ بْنِ عُيَيْنَةَ وَعَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الْمُبَارَكِ أَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا فِي هَذِهِ الأَحَادِيثِ أَمِرُّوهَا بِلا كَيْفٍ وَهَكَذَا قَوْلُ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ مِنْ أَهْلِ السُّنَّةِ وَالْجَمَاعَةِ

وَأَمَّا الْجَهْمِيَّةُ فَأَنْكَرَتْ هَذِهِ الرِّوَايَاتِ وَقَالُوا هَذَا تَشْبِيهٌ وَقَدْ ذَكَرَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِي غَيْرِ مَوْضِعٍ مِنْ كِتَابهِ الْيَدَ وَالسَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ فَتَأَوَّلَتْ الْجَهْمِيَّةُ هَذِهِ الآيَاتِ فَفَسَّرُوهَا عَلَى غَيْرِ مَا فَسَّرَ أَهْلُ الْعِلْمِ وَقَالُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمْ يَخْلُقْ آدَمَ بِيَدِهِ وَقَالُوا إِنَّ مَعْنَى الْيَدِ هَاهُنَا الْقُوَّةُ

و قَالَ إِسْحَقُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّمَا يَكُونُ التَّشْبِيهُ إِذَا قَالَ يَدٌ كَيَدٍ أَوْ مِثْلُ يَدٍ أَوْ سَمْعٌ كَسَمْعٍ أَوْ مِثْلُ سَمْعٍ فَإِذَا قَالَ سَمْعٌ كَسَمْعٍ أَوْ مِثْلُ سَمْعٍ فَهَذَا التَّشْبِيهُ وَأَمَّا إِذَا قَالَ كَمَا قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى يَدٌ وَسَمْعٌ وَبَصَرٌ وَلا يَقُولُ كَيْفَ وَلا يَقُولُ مِثْلُ سَمْعٍ وَلا كَسَمْعٍ فَهَذَا لا يَكُونُ تَشْبِيهًا وَهُوَ كَمَا قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى فِي كِتَابهِ- لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ



Maksudnya: “Dan sungguh telah berkata tidak seorang daripada ahli ilmu tentang hadis ini dan apa yang seumpamanya daripada riwayat-riwayat tentang al-Sifat dan (tentang) Penurunan Rabb (Allah) Tabaraka wa Ta’ala pada setiap malam ke langit dunia. Mereka berkata riwayat-riwayat seperti ini adalah benar (thabit) dan berimanlah kepada ia dan jangan dibayangkan (seperti apa) dan jangan ditanya bentuk, ciri-ciri dan tatacaranya (kaifiat). Inilah yang telah diriwayatkan daripada Malik (bin Anas) dan Sufyan bin ‘Uyaynah dan ‘Abdullah bin Mubarak, sesungguhnya mereka telah berkata tentang hadis-hadis seperti ini (yang berkaitan nas-nas al-Sifat): Terimalah ia (berimanlah kepadanya) tanpa mempersoalkan bentuk, ciri-ciri dan tatacara (kaifiat). Dan demikianlah juga pendapat ahli ilmu Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama‘ah.

Manakala golongan al-Jahmiyyah, mereka mengingkari riwayat-riwayat seperti ini (nas-nas al-Sifat) sambil berkata ini adalah tasybih (penyerupaan dengan makhluk). Sesungguhnya Allah ‘Azza wa Jalla telah menyebut hal ini tidak sekali dalam kitab-Nya (al-Qur’an) seperti Tangan dan Pendengaran dan Penglihatan akan tetapi golongan al-Jahmiyyah telah mentakwilkan ayat-ayat ini dan menafsirkannya kepada sesuatu yang berlainan daripada tafsiran ahli ilmu. Mereka (al-Jahmiyyah) berkata sesungguhnya Allah tidak mencipta (Nabi) Adam (‘alaihi salam) dengan Tangan-Nya. Mereka berkata maksud Tangan-Nya di sini adalah kekuatan-Nya.

Padahal berkata Ishaq bin Ibrahim: “Sesungguhnya yang dianggap tasybih (penyerupaan dengan makhluk) hanyalah apabila seseorang berkata Tangan sepertimana tangan (makhluk) atau seumpama tangan (makhluk), Pendengaran sepertimana pendengaran (makhluk) atau seumpama pendengaran (makhluk). Justeru apabila seseorang berkata Pendengaran sepertimana pendengaran (makhluk) atau seumpama pendengaran (makhluk) maka barulah ia dianggap sebagai Tasybih (penyerupaan).

Namun apabila seseorang berkata sebagaimana firman Allah Ta’ala di dalam kitab-Nya (al-Qur’an): Tangan dan Pendengaran dan Penglihatan tanpa dipersoalkan bentuk, ciri-ciri dan tatacaranya (kaifiat) dan tidak dikatakan seumpama pendengaran (makhluk) dan tidak juga dikatakan sepertimana pendengaran (makhluk) maka ini tidak dianggap sebagai penyerupaan. Malah ia adalah sepertimana firman Allah Ta’ala di dalam kitab-Nya (al-Qur’an): Tidak ada sesuatu pun yang serupa dengan Dia dan Dia-lah Yang Maha Mendengar lagi Maha Melihat. [al-Syura 42:11]”.

[Lihat Sunan Tirmizi pada Hadis no: 662. (باب ما جاء في فضل الصدق) Bab Keutamaan Sedekah. Untuk melihat keseluruhan teks hadisnya, lihat di sini: http://hadith.al-islam.com/Display/Display.asp?Doc=2&Rec=1076 ]

1 comment:

mutasalif said...

Assalamu'alaikum all netters (ASWJ),

FATWA ON THE HERESY OF THE WAHHABISM

The following is a translation from the book Ashadd al-Jihad:

Muhammad ibn Sulaiman al-Madani ash-Shafi'i (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih),
[who passed away in Medina in 1194 A.H. (1780),] was questioned about
Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab an-Najdi. He said, "This man is leading the
ignoramuses of the present age to a heretical path. He is extinguishing
Allahu ta'ala's light. But Allahu ta'ala will not let His light be
extinguished in spite of the opposition of polytheists, and He will
enlighten everywhere with the light of the 'ulama' of Ahl as-Sunnat."
The [collection of the] questions and his answers at the end of
Muhammad ibn Sulaiman's fatwas are as follows:

"Question: Oh great 'ulama', the stars who lead to the path of the Best
of Creatures (the Prophet)! I ask you: Is a person to be permitted to
disseminate his ideas if he says that this umma has wholly dissented
from the essence of Islam and from the path of Rasulullah (sall-Allahu
'alaihi wa sallam), just by measuring with his short sight and narrow
mind the knowledge he has gathered from various religious books, and if
he says that he is mujtahid and, therefore, is able to derive knowledge
on Islam from Allah's Word and Rasulullah's hadiths, although he does
not have any of the qualifications stated as necessary by the 'ulama'
of Islam for being a mujtahid? Should he not give up this claim of his
and follow the 'ulama' of Islam? He says that he is an imam, that it is
necessary for every Muslim to follow him and that his madhhab is
necessary. He forces Muslims to accept his madhhab. He says that those
who do not obey him are unbelievers, that they should be killed and
that their possessions should be confiscated. Does this man tell the
truth? Or, is he wrong? Even if a person fulfilled all the requirements
necessary for making ijtihad and founded a madhhab, would it be jaiz
for him to force everyone to adopt this madhhab? Is it necessary to
adopt a certain madhhab? Or, is everyone free to choose any madhhab he
like? Does a Muslim go out of Islam if he visits the grave of a Sahabi
or a pious servant of Allahu ta'ala, vows something for him, cuts an
animal near a grave, prays making a mediator of a dead person, takes
some soil from such a grave to receive blessings or asks help from
Rasulullah or a Sahabi to get redeemed from danger? Is it permitted to
kill such a Muslim even though he says, 'I do not worship the dead
person and do not believe that he has the power to do anything. I make
an intercessor, mediator, of that person with Allahu ta'ala to make me
attain my wish, because, I believe that he is a beloved servant of
Allahu ta'ala.' Does a person go out of Islam if he swears by something
[or somebody] other than Allah?

"Answer: It should be well understood that knowledge is to be learned
from a master. Those who learn knowledge, one's religion, from books by
themselves make many mistakes. Their mistakes are more than their
correct conclusions. There is no one who can employ ijtihad today.
Al-Imam ar-Rafii, al-Imam an-Nawawi and Fakhr ad-din ar-Razi said, 'The
'ulama' have come to a unanimous conclusion that there is no one left
capable of employing ijtihad today.' No alim argued with al-Imam
as-Suyuti, who was like an ocean in every science and a profound alim,
when he declared that he was a relative (nisbee) mujtahid, that is, a
mujtahid belonging to a formerly established madhhab, though he did not
say that he was an absolute (mutlaq) mujtahid or that he had his own
madhhab. He wrote more than five hundred books. Every book of his shows
that he was at a very high level in the sciences of tafsir and hadith
and in every branch of Islamic knowledge. Is it apt to believe similar
words of those who are very far from the high level of an alim such as
al-Imam as-Suyuti while he was not accepted as a relative mujtahid?
They should not even be listened to. And if one of them goes so far as
to say that the books by the 'ulama' of Islam were wrong, we shall
doubt his reason and faith. Because, we may ask: From whom has he
acquired his knowledge? Since he has seen neither Rasulullah
(sall-Allahu ta'ala 'alaihi wa sallam) nor any Sahabi, he should have
learned by reading the books by the 'ulama' of Islam if he knows
anything. If he says that the books of those 'ulama' are distorted,
then how has he himself found the right path? He should explain this
point to us! The imams of the four madhhabs and the great 'ulama' who
came up in these madhhabs derived all their knowledge from ayats and
hadiths. From which source has he acquired his knowledge which
disagrees with theirs? It is obvious that he has not attained the
degree of employing ijtihad. The thing this man should do when he
encounters a hadith ash-Sharif which he cannot comprehend is to search
for the interpretations of that hadith ash-Sharif by mujtahids. He
should adopt the interpretation he likes. Al-Imam an-Nawawi
(rahimah-Allahu ta'ala), a profound alim, wrote in his book Rawda that
his was the way to be followed. Only those profound 'ulama' who had
attained the degree of ijtihad could comprehend ayats and hadiths.
Non-mujtahids are not permitted to attempt to understand ayats and
hadiths. So, Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab had better return to the right path and
give up his heresies.

"As for his calling Muslims 'unbelievers,' a hadith ash-Sharif
declares, 'If a person calls a Muslim an "unbeliever," one of the two
becomes an unbeliever. If the accused is a Muslim, the one who accuses
becomes an unbeliever.' Al-Imam ar-Rafii (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih), with
reference to Tuhfa, wrote in his book Ash-sharh al-kabir, 'The one who
calls a Muslim a disbeliever but is unable to explain it away becomes a
disbeliever himself, for he will have called Islam disbelief.' Al-Imam
an-Nawawi, too, wrote the same in his book Rawda. Abu Ishaq
al-Isfaraini, al-Halimi, an-Nasr Al-Muqaddasi, al-Ghazali, Ibn Daqiqi
'l-Id and many other 'ulama' said that he becomes a disbeliever whether
he is able to explain it away or not.

"As to his permitting killing Muslims and confiscating their
properties, a hadith ash-Sharif declares, 'I have been commanded to
fight against disbelievers until they say La ilaha illa'llah.' This
hadith ash-Sharif shows that it is not permissible to kill Muslims.
This hadith ash-Sharif was said in the light of the sixth ayat
al-karima of Surat at-Tawba which declares, 'Free them who make tawba
and perform salat and give zakat.' The twelfth ayat al-karima of Surat
at-Tawba declares, 'They are your brothers in Islam.' It is declared,
'We judge according to the appearance we see. Allahu ta'ala knows the
secret,' [That author opposes this hadith sharif too, and says, "We do
not care about the words. We look for the intentions and meanings," on
the 146th page of his book. There are many such statements,
incompatible with ayats and hadiths, in his book.] in a hadith
ash-Sharif. Another hadith ash-Sharif declares, 'I am not ordered to
dissect the hearts of men and see their secrets.' Hadrat Usama killed a
man who had been heard to have said, 'La ilaha illa'llah'; when Usama
claimed that the man had not had iman in his heart, Rasulullah
declared, 'Did you dissect his heart?'

"It is not permissible for a mujtahid to compel people to accept his
madhhab. If he is a Qadi at the court, he may give a ruling according
to his ijtihad and may order that his decree be executed.

"As for making nadhr for awliya', the Shafi'i 'ulama' explained this
subject in detail. It is noted in the book Hiba with reference to the
book Tuhfa: 'If someone makes a vow for a dead wali with the intention
that the goods he vowed be for the wali, this nadhr is not sahih. If he
vows without this intention his nadhr is sahih, and the goods vowed are
to be given to the servants of the wali's tomb, the students and
teachers of the madrasa near the tomb and to the poor who live near the
tomb. If the people who are used to receiving the vowed goods assemble
near the tomb, and if it is a custom of that country that the goods
vowed should be given to them, the goods are given to them. If there is
no such custom, then the nadhr is invalid. This is reported from
as-Samlawi and ar-Ramli, too. Everyone knows that no one amongst those
who make nadhr for a dead wali would ever think the goods vowed should
be given to the dead wali. Because, everyone knows that the dead do not
take or use anything and that the goods are to be given to the poor or
to the people who serve at the tomb. This is why it is an 'ibada. In
fact, according to the Shafi'i madhhab it is not permissible to vow to
do mubah, makruh or haram things. The 'ibadas and sunnas which are
neither fard nor wajib can be vowed as nadhr.'

"Some 'ulama' said 'permissible' and some said 'not permissible' for
kissing and rubbing one's face on graves. Those who said 'not
permissible' said that it was makruh. Nobody said it was haram.

"As declared in the hadiths quoted at the beginning of our book, to
have recourse to prophets and pious Muslims, that is, to put them as
intermediaries, or to entreat Allahu ta'ala through them is
permissible. There are many hadiths which show that it is permissible
to have tawassul (recommendation of oneself to Allahu ta'ala) through
pious deeds. It is certainly permissible to have recourse to the
mediation of pious men while it is permissible to make so of good
deeds.

"As to swearing by some being other than Allahu ta'ala, it is disbelief
only if that being is highly esteemed and attributed as a partner to
Allahu ta'ala. The hadith ash-Sharif, 'He who swears by someone other
than Allah become a disbeliever,' which was related by Hakim and Imam
Ahmad and quoted in al-Munawi's book, explains this fact. But al-Imam
an-Nawawi, depending on the majority of the 'ulama', wrote that it was
makruh and added that the ijma' of Muslims was a document.

"The 114th ayat al-karima of Surat an-Nisa' declares, 'We put into Hell
in the hereafter together with unbelievers the person who, after tawhid
and guidance have been taught to him, dissents from the right path of
Rasulullah and departs from the believers in belief and deeds.' It is
understood from this ayat karima also that it is necessary for every
believer to follow the path of Ahl as-Sunnat wal-Jamaat. It should not
be forgotten that the wolf will devour the lamb out of the flock.
Likewise, he who remains outside Ahl as-Sunnat wal-Jamaat will go to
Hell."

After the above passage, Hadrat Dawud ibn Sulaiman goes on:

"This is the end of our short quotation from the profound scholar
Muhammad ibn Sulaiman al-Madani's long fatwa on this subject. This will
be sufficient for those whom Allahu ta'ala has decreed guidance.
Muhammad ibn Sulaiman died in 1195 A.H. (1780). The heretic Muhammad
ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab was born in the Najd desert in 1111 A.H. (1699) and
died in 1206 (1792). Muhammad ibn Sulaiman unmasked the ignorance of
this man and refuted his opinions and claim that he employed ijtihad.
He proved and disseminated in Muslim countries the fact that Muhammad
ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab had not learned anything or received faid from any
scholar of Islam and that he had fallen into heresy on account of
calling Muslims polytheists.

"Hanafi scholar Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-'Azim al-Makki [(rahmat-Allahi
'alaih) d. 1052 A.H. (1643)] listed and confuted the heretical
statements of Ibn Hazm Muhammad 'Ali [az-Zahiri, d. 456 A.H. (1064)] in
his book Al-qawl as-Sadid. Ibn Hazm ordered everybody to employ ijtihad
and said that it was haram to follow other people. He presents the 58th
ayat al-karima of Surat an-Nisa', 'If you cannot agree on a matter, do
it the way Allahu ta'ala and His Prophet said,' as a support for these
words of his. 'Abd al-'Azim said in answer: 'Thanks to Allahu ta'ala,
we are not outside the state of following the great Islamic scholar
al-Imam al-azam Abu Hanifa. We are honored by following that exalted
imam and his great students and the profound 'ulama' who poured light
into the world such as Shams al-aimma and other real 'ulama' who came
throughout a millennium (rahimahum-Allahu ta'ala).'

"Ibn Hazm was an Andalusian. He was in the Zahiriyya madhhab, which was
founded by Dawud al-Isfhani [az-Zahiri, d. Baghdad, 270 A.H. (883)],
whose madhhab was forgotten in a short time. Ibn al-Ahad, az-Zahabi and
Ibn Ahmad ibn Khallikan [d. Damascus, 681 A.H. (1281)] said, 'Even
those who greeted Ibn Hazm hated him. They disliked his ideas. They all
agreed that he was a heretic. They could not speak good of him. They
warned the sultans to beware of him. They told Muslims to keep away
from him.' Ibn al-'Arif said, 'Ibn Hazm's tongue and al-Hajjaj's sword
did the same thing.' Ibn Hazm had many wicked, heretical ideas
incompatible with the Hadith. Al-Hajjaj [Al Hajjaj az-zalim as-Saqafi,
who died in 95 A.H. (714), was the Governor of Medina and Iraq during
the caliphate of Abd al-Malik and his son Walid.] killed one hundred
and twenty thousand innocent people without any reason. And Ibn Hazm's
tongue led astray hundreds of thousands of Muslims who came after the
'good time' defined in the Hadith ash-Sharif. He died in 456 A.H.
(1064).

"May Allahu ta'ala protect all my Muslim brothers against heretical and
corrupt paths! May He bestow upon us the belief and deeds compatible
with the correct ijtihads of the 'ulama' of the four madhhabs! May He
assemble us as the followers of their madhhabs beside the prophets,
Siddiqs, martyrs and the pious on the Day of Judgement! Amin." [Dawud
ibn Sulaiman, Ashadd al-jihad, written in 1293 A.H., published in 1305
A.H. Arabic reprint and Turkish version in 1390 (1970).]

La haula wala quwwata illa billahil aliyil azhim.

Wassallam.

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